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巧用构词法,单词快易通

2017-04-27 191人浏览

英语构词法

小升初的学生们学习初中英语构词法基础知识也是非常有好处的,那就是它可以使我们能够轻松认识更多单词。


以一种巧妙的方式扩大词汇量,短期内记住更多的单词,以做好小升初衔接。


今天,小编为大家搜集整理了以下构词法,希望对大家有所帮助!


英语中的构词法主要有三种,即合成法、转化法和派生法。

合成法

由两个或两个以上的单词连在一起合成一个新词,这种构词法叫做合成法,合成的词叫做合成词。合成词一般看其词,知其意。


1. 合成名词


●名词/代词+名词 newspaper blood-test she-wolf


●动词+名词 typewriter pickpocket daybreak


●形容词+名词 greenhouse highway


●副词+名词 overcoat outside


●名词+v.-ing/v.-ing +名词 handwriting reading-room freezing-point


●动词+副词/ 副词+ 动词 breakthrough get-together outbreak outcome


●名词+介词+名词 sister-in-law editor-in-chief


2. 合成形容词


●名词+形容词/形容词+名词 world-famous duty-free large-scale long- term


●副词+形容词 over-anxious evergreen


●名词+过去分词 man-made sun-burnt


●名词+现在分词 peace-loving English-speaking


●形容词+现在分词 good-looking easy-going


●副词+过去分词 well-informed widespread


●副词+现在分词 hardworking far-reaching


●形容词+名词+ed warm-hearted absent-minded


●数词+名词+ed three-legged ten-storied


●数词+名词 one-way five–star


●数词+名词+形容词 ten-year-old 800-meter-long


●名词+to+名词 face –to-face door - to -door


3. 合成动词


●名词+动词 baby-sit sleepwalk


●副词+动词 outnumber underestimate overwork


●形容词+动词 whitewash


4. 合成副词


●形容词+名词 meanwhile anyway


●形容词+副词 everywhere anyhow


●副词+副词 however


●介词+名词 beforehand overhead


●介词+副词 forever


5. 合成代词


●代词宾格+self/selves herself themselves


●物主代词+self/selves myself yourselves


●形容词+名词 anything nothing


6. 合成介词


●副词+名词 inside outside


●介词+副词 without within


●副词+介词 into

转化法

在英语中,一个单词由一种词性转化为另一种或几种词性而词形不变的方法叫做转化法。


1. 动词转化为名词


●Let me have a try.


让我试试。


●They are only allowed to sell soft drinks at school.

在学校里只准许他们出售不含酒精的饮料。


2. 名词转化为动词


●He shouldered his way through the crowd.


他用肩膀推开人群前进。


●The smell from the kitchen made his mouth water.

从厨房传来的气味使他流口水。


3. 形容词转化为动词


●We will try our best to better our living conditions.


我们要尽力改善我们的生活状况。


●They tried to perfect the working conditions.

他们努力改善工作条件。


4. 形容词转化为名词


●He didn’t know the difference between right and wrong.

他不辨是非。


●The old in our village are living a happy life.

我们村的老年人过着幸福的生活。


5. 形容词转化为副词


●How long have you lived there?

你在那儿住多久了?


6. 个别词在一定场合中可转化为名词


●Warm clothes are a must in the mountains.

穿暖和的衣服到山区去是必须的。


●Life is full of ups and downs.

人生有得意时也有失意时。


●His argument contains too many ifs and buts.

他的辩论中含有太多的“如果”和“但是”。

派生法

由一个词加上前缀或后缀构成一个与原单词意义相近或截然相反的新词叫做派生法。


1. 前缀


除少数前缀外,前缀一般改变单词的意义,但不改变单词的词性。


(1)表示否定意义的前缀


●un- unhappy unfinished undress


●dis- disagree disbelieve


●in- [il-(在字母l前),im- (在字母m,b,p前),ir- (在字母r前)] inaccurate illegal impolite imbalance irregular


●mis- misbehave mislead mistake


●non- nonstop nonsmoker


(2)表示其他意义的前缀


●en- “使……”enrich enlarge encourage


●inter- “相互”international intercontinental


●re- “再,又,重”rethink retell recycle


●tele- “远程的”telescope telephone telegraph


●auto- “自动的”automatic automobile


●co- “共同”coworker cooperate coexist


●anti- “反对,抵抗”antiwar antifreeze antinuclear


●multi- “多”multistory multicultural multicolor


●bi- “双,二”bicycle bilingual bilateral


●micro- “极小的,微小的”microwave microcomputer


●over- “太多,过分”overwork overdo overestimate


●self- “自己,本身”self-centered self-confident self-control


●under- “在……下面,……下的,不足的”underline, underground, underestimate, underrate


2. 后缀


(1)形容词后缀


●-able “可……的,具有……的”acceptable drinkable knowledgeable reasonable


●-al “与……有关的”physical, magical, political


●-an “属于某地方的人”American African


●-ern “方向”southern, northern, eastern


●-ful/ less “(没)有……的”helpful, useful, homeless, hopeless


●-ish “如……的;有……特征的”foolish childish selfish


●-ive “有……倾向的”active attractive expensive


●-en “由……制成的”golden wooden woolen


●-ous “有(性质)的”famous, dangerous, poisonous


●-ly “有……性质的”friendly yearly daily


●-y “构成形容词”noisy dusty cloudy


(2)名词后缀


●-er / or “表人或用具” farmer, baker, visitor, professor, cooker, container


●-ese “某国(人)的”Chinese, Japanese


●-ian “某国、某地人;精通……的人”musician, Asian, Russian, technician


●-ist “某种主义或职业者”physicist, scientist, communist,socialist


●-ess “表女性,雌性”hostess, actress, princess


●-ment “行为或其状态”government, movement, achievement


●-ness “性质,状态”illness, sadness, carelessness


●-tion “动作,过程,结果”invention, organization, translation


●-ance/ ence “抽象;行为、性质、状态”importance, appearance, absence, existence


●-th “性质、情况” depth, warmth, truth


●-ful “(满的)量”handful, spoonful, mouthful


●-(a)bility “抽象、性质、状态”possibility, disability, reliability


●-al “过程、状态”survival, arrival, approval


●-y “性质、情况”modesty, delivery, honesty


●-dom “处于……状态;性质”freedom, boredom


●-age “状态,行为,身份及其结果”courage, storage, marriage


(3)动词后缀


●-fy / ify “使得;变得” simplify, beautify, purify


●-en “使成为;变得” shorten, deepen, sadden


●-ize “使成为” apologize, realize, specialize


(4)副词后缀


●-ly “方式,程度” freely, truly, angrily


●-ward(s) “向……” towards, forward, upwards


(5)数词后缀


●-teen “十几” fourteen, eighteen, thirteen


●-ty “整十位数” forty, fifty, sixty


●-th “序数词” twelfth, twentieth



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